Possible causes:

  • Light tubes, incandescence lamps
  • Medical instruments for surgery, needles
  • Metal alloys
  • X-ray  tubes,
  • In atomic nucleus reactions as neutron sources and used to reduce the neutron speed
  • Ceramic
  • Color pigments

Possible consequences:

  • Fever
  • Immune depression
  • Lung and heart damage, Pneumonia, granulomatosis
  • Central nervous system damage
  • Ezcema
  • Liver damage
  • Stomach ulcers
  • Bone and bone-marrow damage


  • Remove causes


  • Goyer, R.A. et al.: Metal Toxicology, Academic Press, San Diego (CA, USA) 1995.
  • Zelikoff, J.T., Thomas, P.T.: Immunotoxicology of environmental and occupational metals. Taylor & Francis, London (1998) 27-39.

ORTHO-Analytic AG - http://www.orthoanalytic.ch - Switzerland (Hair analysis)  

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